No attempt to practice Virtuous Leadership can succeed without a basic understanding of temperament and character, which, together, constitute human personality. The Virtuous Leadership approach to temperament affirms the legitimate diversity of our physiological and psychological makeup, and proposes that temperament, rightly understood, undergirds the efforts of all persons to flourish and achieve excellence. It recognizes that temperament does not determine goals (much less outcomes), but instead gives shape and color to the efforts of human beings to flourish through mastering the habits of excellence. In doing so, the habits of excellence – the virtues – become second-nature to us, part and parcel of our very selves. And thus, we ascend from temperament to character, and are no longer slaves to our natural inclinations but have achieved self-mastery in true human freedom.